Jin-Hong Park's University Oral Exam

Jin-Hong Park jhpark9 at stanford.edu
Wed May 20 17:43:42 PDT 2009

*Ph.D Dissertation Defense; “Physics and Technology of Low Temperature
Germanium MOSFETs for Monolithic Three Dimensional Integrated Circuits”*

*Jin-Hong** Park / Advisor: Prof. Krishna C. Saraswat / Dept. of Electrical

*Date : 3pm (Refreshments served at 2:30 pm) on 26th May @ location : CISX

As the minimum feature size of silicon (Si) CMOS devices shrinks to the
nanometer regime, device behavior becomes increasingly complex, due to new
physical phenomena at short dimensions and fundamental limitations in
material properties are reached. One of the techniques that shows promise to
overcome this obstacle is the utilization of monolithic three-dimensional
integrated circuits (3D-ICs). By stacking devices vertically, it is expected
that (1) more functionality can fit into a smaller space and (2) the signal
delay and power consumption in the interconnect layers will decrease and
bandwidth will increase. The major challenge in fabricating monolithic
3D-ICs is the maximum process temperature limit of 400 ºC in the upper
layers of CMOS device processing, due to the fact that higher process
temperature would destroy the underlying device and interconnect layers.
1. Single crystalline GeOI growth technique at below 360 ºC

First, we have investigated Ni or Au-induced crystallization and lateral
crystallization of planar amorphous germanium (α-Ge) on SiO2 at 360
ºCwithout the deleterious effects of thermally induced
Subsequently, single crystalline Ge growth has been achieved on SiO2 by
making dimension of α-Ge line smaller than the size of grains formed using
Ni and Au-induced lateral crystallization at 360 ºC.
2. Low temperature dopants activation technique in Ge

Second, we have investigated low temperature boron and phosphorus activation
in α-Ge using the metal-induced crystallization technique. Eight candidates
of metals including Pd, Cu, Ni, Au, Co, Al, Pt, and Ti are used to
crystallize α-Ge at low temperatures followed by resistivity measurement,
TEM, and XRD analyses, thereby revealing behaviors of the metal-induced
dopants activation process where metals react with α-Ge at a low temperature.
It is found that Co achieves the highest B and P activation ratio in Ge
below 360 oC with slow diffusion rate. The feasibility of low temperature
activation technique has been demonstrated for a Ge gate electrode in a Si
P-MOSFET using Schottky Ni (or Co) silicide source/drain.
3. High performance and low temperature Ge CMOS technology

Third, we demonstrate high performance n+/p & p+/n junction diodes and N &
P-channel Ge MOSFETs, where Ge is heteroepitaxially grown on a Si substrate
at sub 360 ºC and the low temperature gate stack comprises of Al/Al2O3/GeO2.
Shallow (~100 nm) source/drain junctions with very low series resistivity
[5.2×10-4 Ω-cm (in n+/p junction) and 1.07×10-3 Ω-cm (in p+/n junction) at
the lowest point of SRP] and high degree of dopant activation are achieved
by Co-induced dopant activation technique. Consequently, high diode and
transistor current on/off ratios (~1.1×104 & ~1.13×103 for N-MOSFETs and
~2.1×104 & ~1.09×103 for P-MOSFETs) were obtained in these N & P-channel Ge

These low temperature processes can be utilized to fabricate Ge CMOS devices
on upper layers in three-dimensional integrated circuits, where low
temperature processing is critical.
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