MSE PhD Dissertation Defense: Marika Gunji (Mon January 30th, 2PM)

Marika Gunji gunjim at
Mon Jan 16 12:42:31 PST 2012

*Nanostructured SiGe and Ge for Future Electronic Devices*

Marika Gunji

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Advisor: Prof. Paul C. McIntyre

Monday January 30th 2012, 2PM (Refreshments at 1:45PM)

Location: CIS-X 101 Allen Auditorium


As the packing density of silicon (Si) integrated circuits (IC) increases,
scaling requirements are becoming severe. Two approaches are considered to
be effective to continue dimensional scaling. One is to alter the device
layer so that it is a semiconductor other than silicon. Silicon-germanium
(SiGe) and germanium (Ge) are suitable candidates because of their greater
carrier mobilities than Si and their process compatibility with Si
substrates. Another approach is to change the device or circuit structures
so that there is less power consumption and better performance for higher
device packing densities in ICs. Nanoscale structures such as ultra-thin
semiconductor-on-insulators or nanowires can be incorporated in future

The presentation will focus initially on synthesis of highly compressively
strained SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) substrate fabrication. The strain
relaxation mechanisms in highly compressively-strained (0.67% ~ 2.33%
biaxial strain), thin SGOI structures with Ge atomic fraction ranging from
0.18 to 0.81 will be described. SGOI layers (8.7 nm ~ 75 nm thickness) were
fabricated by selective oxidization of Si from compressively strained SiGe
films epitaxially grown on single crystalline Si-on-insulator (SOI) layers.
After high temperature oxidation annealing, ~ 30% of the observed strain
relaxation can be attributed to formation of intrinsic SFs and the
remaining strain relaxation to stress-driven buckling of the SiGe layers.

The presentation will also discuss the path to obtain higher-k dielectrics
on Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. To obtain high gate
capacitance density dielectrics on high-mobility Ge channels, one solution
is to interpose a large energy band gap (Eg) insulator with moderate k as
an interface layer between a higher-k dielectric and the channel, since
higher-k dielectrics tend to have small Eg. Al2O3 layers (k ~ 8) can have
stable interfaces with Ge and a large band gap. On the other hand, TiO2 can
achieve a much higher k value (~ 60) when in the rutile crystalline phase,
but its conduction band offset with Ge is less than 1 eV.
TiO2/Al2O3bilayers deposited on Ge(100) by ALD can achieve low
interface trap density
with small leakage current after post-metal forming gas anneal. From
measurements performed on MOS capacitors, the maximum capacitance at a
given frequency increases after the 450 °C forming gas anneal, indicating
that the dielectric constant of TiO2 increased to ~50 after annealing.
Consistent with these results, TEM datae indicate that the ALD-grown
TiO2phase had predominantly transformed to the rutile phase after

In order to measure the channel transfer characteristics for this TiO2 (7.5
nm)/Al2O3 (2.5 nm)/Ge(100) stack, pMOSFETs with long channels (Lg = 2 – 30
um) were fabricated. The devices show a subthreshold swing of 115 mV/dec
and an on-state current of 60 mA/mm. Measured peak hole mobility reaches
370 cm2/Vs, which suggests the feasibility and potential of TiO2/Al2O3/Ge
gate stacks for high performance MOSFETs.

Marika Gunji

PhD Candidate
McIntyre Group
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Stanford University
E-mail: gunjim at
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